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GAC Water Treatment

GAC Water Treatment

Granular Activated Carbon (GAC)

Granular activated carbon is a highly adsorbent material used to remove contamination from water. Activated carbon has been known as a miracle filter media by many researchers because of its unique ability to remove offensive tastes, odors, color, chlorine and volatile organic chemicals, pesticides and trihalomethanes (a group of suspected carcinogens). Briefly, activated carbon acts like a sponge, with a large surface area to absorb contaminants in the water. The surface area of one pound of activated carbon is equal to 125 acres. Many scientists believe this is a result of an affinity that these chemicals have for carbon because of Van Der Waal forces. Activated carbon is the preferred method of water treatment and is recommended by the EPA to remove a host of potentially hazardous and possibly carcinogenic chemicals in drinking water. A partial list of chemicals that are reduced or removed by activated carbon are:


OrganicMCLSource/Industrial occurrenceHealth effectTreatment
Chlorobenzene 0.1 Used as a solvent for paint and metal manufacturing. Also used in insecticides. Affects nervous system, kidneys and liver. Activated carbon
CIS-1,2 Dichloroethylene 0.07 Used as an industrial solvent in the manufacturing of dyes, perfumes and lacquers Affects liver, and a nervous and circulatory systems. Probable cause of cancer. Activated carbon
Dibromochloropropane 0.0002 Soil fumigant on soybeans, and cotton. Canceled in 1997. Cancer Activated carbon
Dioxin 0.00000003 Chemical production by-product; impurity in herbicides. Affects lungs, liver and kidney. Probable cause of cancer. Activated carbon
Epichlorohydrin 0 Used in epoxy resins and coating, and in flocculants. Affects nervous system, kidney and liver. Activated carbon
Ethlbenzene 0.7 Used in the manufacture of gasoline, insecticides and asphalt Probable cause of cancer Activated carbon
Ethylene Dibromide 0.00005 Used as a gasoline additive and soil fumigant. Affects nervous system, kidneys and liver. Activated carbon
Monochlorobenzene 0.01 Used in manufacture of pesticides and as a metal cleaner and industrial solvent. Cancer Activated carbon
PAHs 0.0002 Coal tar coating, burnings organic matter, volcanoes, fossil fuels. Cancer Activated carbon
Phthalate (di(2-ethylhexyl)) 0.006 PVC and other plastics. Affects skin and liver. Causes nausea. Probable cause of cancer. Activated carbon
Polychlorinated Biophenyts (PCBs) 0.0005 Used in electrical transformers. Affect nervous system, kidneys and liver. Activated carbon
Styrene 0.01 Used in manufacturing plastic, resins and foams. Affects nervous system. Probable cause of cancer and anesthesia Activated carbon
Tetrachloroethylene 0.005 Used in dry cleaning and as a degreasing agent for metals. Also used for manufacturing rubber, waxes, paints and inks. Affects nervous system, liver and kidneys. Causes narcosis. Irritant to respiratory system. Activated carbon
Toluene 1 Used in gasoline, paint thinners, lacquers and adhesives. Cancer Activated carbon, ozonation
Total Trihalomethanes (THM's):
Chloroform
Bromodichloromethane
Dibromochloromethane
0.01 Formed when water containing organic matter is treated with chlorine. ffects nervous system and muscles. Probable cause of cancer. Activated carbon, aeration, ultra filtration (20-90%), RO (20-90%)
1,1 Dichloroethylene 0.007 Used in manufacturing dyes, plastic, perfumes, paints and adhesives Affects kidneys and liver and can cause nausea. Activated carbon
1,1,2-Trichloroethane 0.005 Solvent in rubber products, chemical production waste. Kidney, liver, nervous system damage Activated carbon, aeration
1,1,1-Trichloroethane 0.02 Used in manufacturing of pesticides, plastic and metals. Affects nervous system. Causes narcosis and probably cancer. Activated carbon
1,2 Dichlorobenzene 0.6 Used in the manufacturing of fumigants, insecticides, waxes, resins, rubber and asphalt Affects lungs, liver and kidneys. Activated carbon
1,2 Dichloroethane 0.005 Used in the manufacturing of gasoline, paint, varnish, metal degreasers and insecticide fumigants Damage kidney and liver can cause nausea Activated carbon
1,2 Dichloropropane 0.005 Used in insecticide fumigants, dry cleaning fluids and in manufacturing of resins, waxes and petroleum products Affects lungs, liver and kidneys. Activated carbon
1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene 0.07 Herbicide production; dye carrier. Liver, kidney damage Activated carbon, aeration
1,4 Dichlorobenzene 0.075 Used in moth repellent, germicides, pesticides and soil fumigants. Affects nervous system, liver and kidneys. Probable cause of cancer. Activated carbon
Acrytamide 0 Flocculants used in sewage and wastewater treatment. Affect nervous system, probable cause of cancer. Activated carbon
Adipates 0.4 Synthetic rubber, food packaging, cosmetics. Decreased body weight; liver and testes damage. Activated carbon, aeration
Benzene 0.005 Used in fuels and as a solvent in manufacturing pharmaceuticals, plastics, pesticides and paints. Often traced to leaking underground storage tanks. Leukemia, anemia and possibly cancer Activated carbon
Trans-1,2 Dichloroethylene 0.1 Used as an industrial solvent in the manufacturing of dyes, perfumes, lacquers and rubber. Affects liver, and nervous and circulatory systems Activated carbon, ozonation with UV irradiation
Trichloroethylene 0.1 Used in dry cleaning and as a degreasing agent. Also used for manufacturing rubber, paints, adhesives, resins, oils and fumigants. Irritates body tissue. Affects nervous system. Probable cause of cancer. Activated carbon
Vinyl Chloride 0.005 Used as a plastic adhesive and refrigerant. The main component of PVC pipe Affects nervous system. Probable cause of cancer. Activated carbon
Xyienes 0.002 Used in manufacturing paint, ink, petroleum and detergents. Affects nervous system, kidneys, lungs, liver and mucous membranes. Activated carbon
 

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